Date and Context
This seems to be Muhammad’s last address to the Meccans before his flees Mecca and goes to Medina to live. The Meccans have rejected Muhammad and his message because he has not given them any proof. The main theme of this sura is to answer this objection and provide and explain the proof that Muhammad’s message is true. It also may be that this sura corrects sura 7 which compared Muhammad to Moses. However since Moses did miracles this comparison did not work and needed to be corrected.
vv. 1-73 Why Allah has not given a miraculous sign through Muhammad.
vv. 74-135 The sign of Abraham and wisdom not revelation. Abraham looked at the world and rightly saw its creator and worshipped him alone.
vv. 136-166 The Meccan claim that they do look at the world and follow its god refuted.
What I found Interesting.
1. The Meccan Objections - Muhammad you give us no proof for what you say!
No book from heaven.
Had we sent down unto thee (Muhammad) (actual) writing upon parchment, so that they could feel it with their hands, those who disbelieve would have said: This is naught else than mere magic. 6:7
They say: Why hath not an angel been sent down unto him? If We sent down an angel, then the matter would be judged; no further time would be allowed them (for reflection). Had we appointed him (Our messenger) an angel, We assuredly had made him (as) a man (that he might speak to men); and (thus) obscured for them (the truth) they (now) obscure. 6:8-9
They say: Why hath no portent been sent down upon him from his Lord? Say: Lo! Allah is Able to send down a portent. But most of them know not. 6:37
You are just speaking fables (6:25)
2. The Evidence of Muhammad.
a. Look at the world and see the power of Allah. Allah is the all powerful, all knowing, the all sustaining, the one to whom we all return. He makes the plants grow and the rain to come. There is no evidence of him having a partner. 6:59, 64
Proofs have come unto you from your Lord, so whoso seeth, it is for his own good, and whoso is blind is blind to his own hurt. And I am not a keeper over you. 6:104
Such is Allah, your Lord. There is no God save Him, the Creator of all things, so worship Him. And He taketh care of all things. 6:102
b. Even if you were given a miraculous sign you would not believe.
And they swear a solemn oath by Allah that if there come unto them a portent they will believe therein. Say; Portents are with Allah and (so is) that which telleth you that if such came unto them they would not believe. 6:109
c. Abraham - There is a great story about Abraham before he was a believer. One day he began to worship a star but it set so he didn’t worship it. The same happens with the moon and sun. Abraham then uses his logic to say these are not gods and that Allah alone should be worshiped. It is this logical argument that Muhammad puts to the Meccans. This argument certainly can give us evidence for God (Romans 1:18ff) but does not provide evidence for Muhammad being a prophet.
That is Our argument. We gave it unto Abraham against his folk. We raise unto degrees of wisdom whom We will. Lo! thy Lord is Wise, Aware. 6:83
d. It is Allah’s choice that you don’t believe Muhammad.
And whomsoever it is Allah's will to guide, He expandeth his bosom unto the Surrender, and whomsoever it is His Will to send astray, He maketh his bosom close and narrow as if he were engaged in sheer ascent. Thus Allah layeth ignominy upon those who believe not. 6:125
Say - For Allah's is the final argument - Had He willed He could indeed have guided all of you. 6:149
e. Muhammad says he has enough proof.
Say: I am (relying) on clear proof from my Lord, while ye deny Him. I have not that for which ye are impatient. The decision is for Allah only. He telleth the truth and He is the Best of Deciders. 6:57
f. The Meccans say they do worship the god/gods of creation with their animistic worship but Muhammad says they kill their children and do terrible things therefore this cannot be the true god. However, Muhammad used some of their animistic worship with the kissing and honouring of the Black Stone.
Bukhari, Muslim and Abu Daw'ud reported that 'Umar approached the Black Stone and kissed it. Then he said: "I know that you are a mere stone that can neither harm nor do any good. If I had not seen the Prophet (peace be upon him) kissing you, I would have never kissed you." Al-Khatabi said: "This shows that abiding by the Sunnah of the Prophet (peace be upon him) is binding, regardless of whether or not we understand its reason or the wisdom behind it." Such information devolves obligation on all those whom it reaches, even if they may not fully comprehend its significance. It is known, however, that kissing the Black Stone signifies respect for it, recognition of our obligation toward it, and using it as a
means of seeking Allah's blessings. ... The underlying spirit of all this is unquestioning submission to Allah. (As-Sayyid Sabiq, Fiqh us-Sunnah, Hajj and 'Umrah, vol. 5, p. 75)
3. Threats for rejecting Muhammad. Many verses saying Allah will judge you and send you to hell, but more interestingly was the threat the Muhammad would come and punish them
Messengers (of Allah) have been derided before thee, but that whereat they scoffed surrounded such of them as did deride. 6:10
Yes, it is true that Muhammad did not fight when he was in Mecca but he was not peaceful. He seems to be active in making threats to the Meccans.
4. Muhammad does not know
Say (O Muhammad, to the disbelievers): I say not unto you (that) I possess the treasures of Allah, nor that I have knowledge of the Unseen; and I say not unto you: Lo! I am an angel. I follow only that which is inspired in me. Say: Are the blind man and the seer equal? Will ye not then take thought? 6:50
This is quite different from the New Testament descriptions of Jesus.