Date, Context and Theme
This is a Meccan sura and continues the theme of Muhammad being rejected by the Meccans (Quraysh). The sura is a call to perseverance as the Muslims wait for the truth of Muhammad’s message to be seen.
Whether We let thee see something of that which We have promised them, or make thee die (before its happening), thine is but conveyance (of the message). Ours the reckoning. 13:40
vv. 1-6 Allah is the sovereign lord and judge and has his time for everything.
vv. 7- 43 The rest of the sura encourages the Muhammad and the Muslim to persevere in the face of: still has given no sign (13:7, 27), non-Muslims prospering (13:26, 33), being mock (13:32), apostates (13:25), accepting God’s time, living righteous lives, and knowing that God will judge the non-Muslims.
What I found interesting.
1. Both God’s choice and human choice at taught as real
For him are angels ranged before him and behind him, who guard him by Allah's command. Lo! Allah changeth not the condition of a folk until they (first) change that which is in their hearts; and if Allah willeth misfortune for a folk there is none that can repel it, nor have they a defender beside Him. 13:11
Had it been possible for a Lecture to cause the mountains to move, or the earth to be torn asunder, or the dead to speak, (this Qur'an would have done so). Nay, but Allah's is the whole command. Do not those who believe know that, had Allah willed, He could have guided all mankind? As for those who disbelieve, disaster ceaseth not to strike them because of what they do, or it dwelleth near their home until the threat of Allah come to pass. Lo! Allah faileth not to keep the tryst. 13:30-31
2. Another creedal statement.
Say (O Muhammad): Who is Lord of the heavens and the earth? Say: Allah. Say: Take ye then (others) beside Him for protectors, which, even for themselves, have neither benefit nor hurt? Say: Is the blind man equal to the seer, or is darkness equal to light? Or assign they unto Allah partners who created the like of His creation so that the creation (which they made and His creation) seemed alike to them? Say: Allah is the Creator of all things, and He is the One, the Almighty. 13:16
3.Allah makes parables to explain his truth. This is a common phrase.
He sendeth down water from the sky, so that valleys flow according to their measure, and the flood beareth (on its surface) swelling foam - from that which they smelt in the fire in order to make ornaments and tools riseth a foam like unto it - thus Allah coineth (the similitude of) the true and the false. Then, as for the foam, it passeth away as scum upon the banks, while, as for that which is of use to mankind, it remaineth in the earth. Thus Allah coineth the similitudes. 13:17
4. Don't be discouraged by apostates.
And those who break the covenant of Allah after ratifying it, and sever that which Allah hath commanded should be joined, and make mischief in the earth: theirs is the curse and theirs the ill abode. 13:25
5. Don't be discouraged that there is still no sign.
Those who disbelieve say: If only some portent were sent down upon him from his Lord! Thou art a warner only, and for every folk a guide. 13:7
Those who disbelieve say: If only a portent were sent down upon him from his Lord! Say: Lo! Allah sendeth whom He will astray, and guideth unto Himself all who turn (unto Him), 13:27